Collecting the Drops: A Water Sustainability Planner


Cooling Tower Usage

Tower Evaporation Rate

C x ∆T/1000

C = tower recirculation rate in the units of pounds of water per minute

T = temperature difference across the cooling tower in degrees Fahrenheit

Cooling Tower Blow Down Rate

[Windage Rate x (Cycles of Concentration -1) - Tower Evaporation Rate] / (1- Cycles of Concentration)

Cycles of Concentration = conductivity or chloride level in the cooling tower blowdown/ conductivity or chloride level in the cooling tower makeup water

Boiler Usage

Boiler Make Up

Boiler Steam Rate - Condensate Return +  Boiler Blow Down

Boiler Blow Down

Range of 4 to 8 % of Boiler Makeup



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Module 1: Water Use and Impacts | Module 2: Water Management Risk Assessment | Module 3: Case Examples and Links
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